In the development of traditional handicraft villages and Vietnamese handicrafts, bamboo and rattan production occupies an important position. In the current rattan and bamboo villages of Hanoi, the most typical is Phu Vinh rattan and bamboo village, Phu Nghia commune, Chuong My district. The village is located along the highway 6A connecting Hanoi with the northern mountainous provinces, 5 km from Chuong My district, 27 km from the center of Hanoi in the southwest.
Phu Vinh Village is considered a "Cloudy Land" famous for bamboo and rattan weaving with a long history of career development. Who is the true ancestor of the bamboo and rattan industry in Phu Vinh? The elderly people recounted that, about 400 years ago, Phu Hoa Trang (now Phu Vinh) had a place called Co Dau beach because there were many storks here and then called Go Dau. The stork feathers often lose a mound, there are some people who like to pick up the beautiful hats and hats. Initially, they found it beautiful and durable, making it a gift for relatives and friends, gradually gaining popularity and many people came to buy. Gradually, the stork is limited, people find more stover grass, grass weeds available in the fields and go to the forest to find flexible materials such as bamboo, rattan, Giang ... to produce them as household items such as baskets and pots. , pallets, lanes ... Over time, many new materials have been added, improved product models, and techniques of the village's bamboo and rattan weaving have been improved to make the products more sophisticated and economically valuable. than. Bamboo and rattan weaving has since spread to other villages in the region and reached over 20 provinces and cities nationwide.
Each bamboo and rattan product is a work of art, requiring sophisticated and sophisticated techniques and arts of skillful and skillful hands. Want a work like that, first Phu Vinh village worker must understand the material that he intended to do. For example, bamboo, bamboo, bamboo ... and many other bamboo species are plants of the rice family. Bamboo is a straight-growing tree with high stiffness, crispy, especially bamboo containing sugar, so it is susceptible to beetle, so when used, it must be treated against beetle.
In order to produce products, it has to go through many steps, from choosing to buy, process raw materials, to manufacture products. Buying materials are re-exposed. After that, put in chemical tank for about 10 days to prevent termites. Then take out the bamboo to grind the nut, shave the bark, use polished armor paper and dry the bamboo.
The next step is to put bamboo in the kiln, use straw, straw or bamboo leaves to pick up the color, the product is brownish brown or black brown, is required by customers. After taking the color, take the bamboo out of the oven to cool it and bring it straight up. Entering the closing stage, the whole workers choose materials to cut out the items to match the products that were born. The color of the product has many types, which can be from the original color of hun clouds or supported by the preparation of PU paint.
Clouds are forest products used as raw materials for the production of handicrafts, household utensils (furniture) such as tables, chairs or baskets ... Rattan contains more water than outer shells, when the clouds are dry naturally has a dull white color and toughness. The durability of rattan without moisture can be 100 years or more. The rattan is very slow, it only grows 1 meter each year, when it is 5 meters long, it must be harvested. Poor quality or old rattan trees are poor.
Cloud processing techniques include two stages: drying and splitting rattan.
When drying, too much smoke or too little cloudy smoke is also red. When drying, having rain, rattan fibers lose their beauty, but the sunshine of the rattan fiber loses its fresh appearance. The fiber of the rattan has not dried yet, the skin of the skin becomes rotten, but the skin is too dry and the skin loses its softness. Therefore, drying rattan requires proper technique. People who do these jobs cannot be neglected but must constantly take care of and watch like silkworms.
Slapping is the first stage of rattan processing. Whether rattan is long or short, it only cuts every 3 m segments, straightening the straight cloud section and then pulling out the hook. Splitting clouds is an elaborate work, requiring high skills. Rattan trees often have uneven burning, so it is necessary to pay attention to clever control so that the big and small parts are equal. The main requirement of splitting rattan is that each fiber must be very uniform. Large fibers to knit the scoop of regular products. The type of microfiber used to make quarterly types, or to create colorful flowers ... Technically separated when making bamboo fibers, our rattan is a precious creation. Depending on bamboo bars, big and small rattan trees, the decision is split evenly or oddly. To create a size of rattan, if a small rattan tree is split into a private one, then make a six-piece tree to make a bigger tree to make seven or nine strands.
After splitting, the slats can be polished to have smooth, flat, cloudy fibers, then dried out in the sun, so that the water in the rattan fiber drains out. Let the product have a variety of colors, after drying the rattan fibers will be dipped in the leaves of chopped stubble. This is a completely natural way to create color, without chemicals to make bamboo and rattan products of Phu Vinh harmless to users' health and high color fastness to 30-40 years.
Quality and art of rattan fiber is one of two factors that determine the value of rattan products. Phu Vinh people are very skilled. They deeply understand the rattan, the most important material of rattan, attribute attributes of each tree, each rattan fiber. The rattan products made here have reached the highest peak in Vietnam's current rattan art. This success first belongs to the artisans.
Nowadays, the cutting, cutting and polishing stages of bamboo, bamboo, rattan, gui ... have gradually been mechanized, but all high-class bamboo and rattan products must be manually manipulated. , so knitting also has its own pattern, which is the method and technique of knitting and installing. Whether a worker or a craftsman, no one can go beyond that framework. For example, when knitting the gradual types, soles, baskets, cradles, table cages, etc., they are fashioned only to be slotted into a fad, if the double thread is used, it is only caught in pairs. Knitting wrong is an error right away. In the rattan weaving profession, when the portrait has been taken, the year must be overridden.
Bamboo and rattan products have many types but are classified into 4 basic groups: discus (thin nan, no scraper, simple knitting, uncertain goods); Checkered goods (thin nan, with scissor, knitting many times to create small and relatively big goods; numb goods (thick slats have to be poked, simple knitting, sturdy goods but not open), batches (thick slats, knit with reinforced (molded goods), sturdy goods sure).
In handicraft and rattan trade, bamboo is currently preserving its tradition quite well. Traditional features in bamboo and rattan products are simple and rustic shapes but the knitting techniques are very sophisticated. Undeniably, the bamboo and rattan industry has created jobs for a large number of rural laborers, providing a stable source of income for workers. At present, Phu Vinh's rattan and bamboo products have penetrated into difficult markets such as Japan, America, Holland, Germany, Spain ... Bamboo and rattan has also become a Goods on the export list to countries. The market for rattan and bamboo export is expanding and the turnover value is getting more and more, which is classified as an important export commodity of our country today. But for bamboo and rattan to become commercial goods, craft villages need production organizations, export enterprises with large scale, aesthetic and discovering tastes and markets.
The production method of the parallel craft village exists in two ways: Either sampling at the collecting establishments, then buying raw materials themselves, making and processing products, after being given a certain quantity, bring to sell. Or do it directly at the household of business households in the style of wage employment.
The Phu Vinh people who are hereditary for this job, every household has a bamboo and rattan worker, from young men and women to elderly and young children. In the past, bamboo and rattan products were mainly used for daily life such as baskets, pans, gradual, sieves, bags, boxes ... Until now, hundreds of export samples have been created. : rattan plate, rattan basket, rattan, rattan pots, rattan bowl; fine art products such as decorations, lampshades, curtains, portraits, landscapes, diaphragm, couplets, tables, chairs, sofas; hotel furniture, bamboo restaurants.